Post by: Kim Stephens
The CNA report entitled “Social Media + Emergency Management Camp: Transforming the Response Enterprise” was written by Dr. Clarence Wardell and Yee San Su in order to document the findings from the first-ever SMEM camp, and almost more importantly, to explore how social media and emerging communication technologies are changing the way we disseminate and receive information before, during and after a crisis. (See this blog post by Heather Blanchard of Crisis Commons’ that summarize the report and the SMEM effort in general.)
The authors offer 3 key findings and six recommendations for moving forward if we would like to see widespread adoption of social networking by the emergency management community. One of the six recommendations is the need for continued education and knowledge sharing. Specifically the authors state that we need to
“Make the continued creation and refinement of training and knowledge-sharing opportunities for emergency management practitioners a priority. The 2011 SMEM Camp format was an experiment that was well received by the majority of participants.”
As the authors indicate, in this early stage of the use of social networking as a tool for crisis communications, there are still many unsettled questions that can pose significant challenges to adoption. This includes a lack of clarity with regard to laws, policy and guidance. The authors state, that we are in a “Wild West situation, as the available technology has surpassed the rules and guidance that are currently in place.”
However, with that being said, there are many organizations that are using these tools in creative ways and we can measure their success based on their own stated goals and objectives. Even though there are no formally recognized and accepted ”best practices” we are certainly starting to understand the value these organizations are gaining from using these tools. Informally, many of us, including myself, often find organizations that are doing great work in this area and promote these efforts as best practice examples. As Dr. Wardell inferred, highlighting these successes will help us create “buy-in and subsequent adoption and investment [from other] organizations.”
As forerunning agencies use social networking tools on a daily basis and during real-world disaster events, they are also learning effective strategies. The sharing of that knowledge is invaluable. Nonetheless, as the technology and adoption rate matures, I do expect that we will also need to have better answers to the following questions:
- What does an effective public safety SM presence look like?
- What metrics can be used to determine success?
- How can we measure impact–e.g. what are the “outcomes” versus the “outputs”?
Furthermore, knowledge sharing does not necessarily have to take place in a conference or a formal setting. Hundreds of emergency management professionals engage in knowledge sharing on this topic on a daily basis on twitter via the #SMEM hashtag. There are also many emerging sources of information, including blogs and wikis specifically for this topic. For instance, see the Emergency 2.0 Wiki from Australia whose stated purpose is to “share and advance knowledge, by providing best practice guidelines on how to utilize social media in all phases of emergency communications.” These guidelines, when fully fleshed out, will provide an amazing resource for all public safety organizations.
In the meantime, below I list some of the more important questions most people raise when discussing social media usage for crisis communications. As you will notice, these discussion points relate to processes, internal procedures, goals and objectives, NOT how to use specific tools. The social networks may change (e.g tumblr versus facebook) but organizations can build structures, policies and procedures that enable them to engage on any social platform. (Each of these subjects are addressed, to some extent, in the CNA report.)
- Why should public safety organizations use these tools? (e.g. Is there a broad use of social networks in your community? Does your local news media expect to receive information via social networks? )
- What are your organization’s stated goals for public outreach (no matter what tool you utilize) in each phase of the emergency continuum? This will ultimately help determine if the effort is successful.
- What resources (human and technical) are necessary to implement a social media campaign during each phase of a crisis?
- What resources are available to augment your staff in a crisis–e.g. virtual support?
- Who in your organization should be using the tools on a daily basis and who should be using the tools during a crisis?
- How have other public safety organizations structured themselves to rapidly update SM content in a crisis? How have they integrated these efforts with other agencies and channels? How does this relate to the Incident Command System?
- How can public safety organizations collect, sort, and verify data from social networks to provide real-time situational awareness?
- What policies need to be changed or adjusted in your organization in order to allow for personnel to use these tools?
- What is the policy regarding publicly provided content? This relates to both storage of the data for FOIA purposes, and how to deal with comments, questions and concerns raised through these platforms.
- What are some effective strategies for reaching the intended audience with preparedness, response and recovery messages? (Strategies do change during each phase.)
As a side note, the Emergency Management Institute (EMI) has contracted with Mantitou, Inc. to develop social media training. The company is in the early data collection stage and has asked the SMEM community to assist them in their effort by providing the following:
- best practices in utilization of social media in all phases of emergency management;
- examples of measured impact from use of social media;
- challenges and solutions or approaches to implementing and advancing use of social media within emergency management organizations.
(If you are interested in providing content for this effort let me know and I can pass that info along to their team.)
To view the CNA report and its resources you can click to http://wiki.crisiscommons.org/wiki/SMEM_Initiative or the below links:
- Social Media in Emergency Management Camp: Transforming the Response Enterprise Report: http://scr.bi/uy5H0w
- SMEM Report Factsheet: http://scr.bi/ts1fFP
- SMEM Report Annex B: Virtual Operations Support Group/Teamhttp://scr.bi/VOSGTConcept
- SMEM Report Annex C: Social Media in Emergency Management: the Canadian experiencehttp://scr.bi/SMEMCanada
- Aussies Establish a Wiki to Distribute Social Media Best Practices (idisaster.wordpress.com)
- Processing and Analyzing Social Media in a Crisis (idisaster.wordpress.com)